This book is the first economic history of ancient Egypt covering the entire pharaonic period, –30 BCE, and employing a New Institutional Economics. Background —. Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the. Ancient Egypt, erkunde die verborgenen Schätze in diesem antiken Online Spielautomaten. Achte auf: 3 + goldene Skarabäen, für den Pick & Click-Bonus.
They are usually associated with a particular Coptic or Sufi saint, but are often celebrated by Egyptians irrespective of creed or religion.
Ramadan has a special flavour in Egypt, celebrated with sounds, lights local lanterns known as fawanees and much flare that many Muslim tourists from the region flock to Egypt to witness during Ramadan.
The ancient spring festival of Sham en Nisim Coptic: Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies heavily on legume and vegetable dishes.
Although food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground.
Meat has been very expensive for most Egyptians throughout history, so a great number of vegetarian dishes have been developed. Some consider kushari a mixture of rice, lentils, and macaroni to be the national dish.
Fried onions can be also added to kushari. In addition, ful medames mashed fava beans is one of the most popular dishes.
Garlic fried with coriander is added to molokhiya , a popular green soup made from finely chopped jute leaves, sometimes with chicken or rabbit.
Football is the most popular national sport of Egypt. The Cairo Derby is one of the fiercest derbies in Africa, and the BBC picked it as one of the 7 toughest derbies in the world.
The Egyptian national football team , known as the Pharaohs, won the African Cup of Nations seven times, including three times in a row in , , and Egypt was 4th place in the football tournament in the and the Olympics.
Squash and tennis are other popular sports in Egypt. The Egyptian squash team has been competitive in international championships since the s.
Egypt has won the Squash World Championships four times, with the last title being in In , the national handball team achieved its best result in the tournament by reaching fourth place.
Among all African nations, the Egypt national basketball team holds the record for best performance at the Basketball World Cup and at the Summer Olympics.
Egypt has taken part in the Summer Olympic Games since and hosted and Alexandria h the first Mediterranean Games in Egypt has hosted several international competitions.
On Friday 19 September , Guinness World Records announced that Egyptian scuba diver Ahmed Gabr is the new title holder for deepest salt water scuba dive , at The hour feat took Gabr 1, feet metres down into the abyss near the Egyptian town of Dahab in the Red Sea , where he works as a diving instructor.
On 1 September Raneem El Weleily was ranked as the world number one woman squash player. The first telephone line between the two cities was installed in Egypt Post is the company responsible for postal service in Egypt.
Established in , it is one of the oldest governmental institutions in the country. Egypt is one of 21 countries that contributed to the establishment of the Universal Postal Union , initially named the General Postal Union, as signatory of the Treaty of Bern.
In September , Egypt ratified the law granting authorities the right to monitor social media users in the country as part of tightening internet controls.
The illiteracy rate has decreased since from A European-style education system was first introduced in Egypt by the Ottomans in the early 19th century to nurture a class of loyal bureaucrats and army officers.
In the s, President Nasser phased in free education for all Egyptians. Basic education, which includes six years of primary and three years of preparatory school, is a right for Egyptian children from the age of six.
General secondary education prepares students for further education, and graduates of this track normally join higher education institutes based on the results of the Thanaweya Amma , the leaving exam.
Technical secondary education has two strands, one lasting three years and a more advanced education lasting five.
Graduates of these schools may have access to higher education based on their results on the final exam, but this is generally uncommon. Egyptian life expectancy at birth was In , there were Life expectancy increased from According to the World Health Organization in , an estimated In the law was amended to impose tougher penalties on those convicted of performing the procedure, pegging the highest jail term at 15 years.
Those who escort victims to the procedure can also face jail terms up to 3 years. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Egypt disambiguation. Country spanning North Africa and Southwest Asia. Other dialects and minority languages are spoken regionally.
It is reflected in early Greek Linear B tablets as "a-ku-pi-ti-yo". The ancient Egyptian name of the country was. Prehistoric Egypt and Ancient Egypt.
Ptolemaic Kingdom and Egypt Roman province. Egypt in the Middle Ages. Fatimid Caliphate and Mamluk Sultanate Cairo. History of Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty.
History of Egypt under the British. History of the Republic of Egypt. Human rights in Egypt. Egyptian Armed Forces and Foreign relations of Egypt.
Bush at Camp David in ; Bottom: Governorates of Egypt and Subdivisions of Egypt. Kafr El Sheikh 5. Water supply and sanitation in Egypt.
Demographics of Egypt and Egyptians. List of cities and towns in Egypt. Largest cities or towns in Egypt census. List of museums in Egypt. Egypt portal Middle East portal.
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For almost 30 centuries—from its unification around B. The main sources of information about ancient Egypt are the many monuments, objects and artifacts that have been recovered from archaeological sites, covered with hieroglyphs that have only recently been deciphered.
The picture that emerges is of a culture with few equals in the beauty of its art, the accomplishment of its architecture or the richness of its religious traditions.
Few written records or artifacts have been found from the Predynastic Period, which encompassed at least 2, years of gradual development of the Egyptian civilization.
Neolithic late Stone Age communities in northeastern Africa exchanged hunting for agriculture and made early advances that paved the way for the later development of Egyptian arts and crafts, technology, politics and religion including a great reverence for the dead and possibly a belief in life after death.
A southern king, Scorpion, made the first attempts to conquer the northern kingdom around B. A century later, King Menes would subdue the north and unify the country, becoming the first king of the first dynasty.
King Menes founded the capital of ancient Egypt at White Walls later known as Memphis , in the north, near the apex of the Nile River delta.
The capital would grow into a great metropolis that dominated Egyptian society during the Old Kingdom period. The Archaic Period saw the development of the foundations of Egyptian society, including the all-important ideology of kingship.
To the ancient Egyptians, the king was a godlike being, closely identified with the all-powerful god Horus. The earliest known hieroglyphic writing also dates to this period.
In the Archaic Period, as in all other periods, most ancient Egyptians were farmers living in small villages, and agriculture largely wheat and barley formed the economic base of the Egyptian state.
The annual flooding of the great Nile River provided the necessary irrigation and fertilization each year; farmers sowed the wheat after the flooding receded and harvested it before the season of high temperatures and drought returned.
The Old Kingdom began with the third dynasty of pharaohs. Pyramid-building reached its zenith with the construction of the Great Pyramid at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo.
Built for Khufu or Cheops, in Greek , who ruled from to B. C and Menkaura B. During the third and fourth dynasties, Egypt enjoyed a golden age of peace and prosperity.
The pharaohs held absolute power and provided a stable central government; the kingdom faced no serious threats from abroad; and successful military campaigns in foreign countries like Nubia and Libya added to its considerable economic prosperity.
This chaotic situation was intensified by Bedouin invasions and accompanied by famine and disease. From this era of conflict emerged two different kingdoms: A line of 17 rulers dynasties nine and 10 based in Heracleopolis ruled Middle Egypt between Memphis and Thebes, while another family of rulers arose in Thebes to challenge Heracleopolitan power.
After the last ruler of the 11th dynasty, Mentuhotep IV, was assassinated, the throne passed to his vizier, or chief minister, who became King Amenemhet I, founder of dynasty A new capital was established at It-towy, south of Memphis, while Thebes remained a great religious center.
The 12th dynasty kings ensured the smooth succession of their line by making each successor co-regent, a custom that began with Amenemhet I.
Middle-Kingdom Egypt pursued an aggressive foreign policy, colonizing Nubia with its rich supply of gold, ebony, ivory and other resources and repelling the Bedouins who had infiltrated Egypt during the First Intermediate Period.
The kingdom also built diplomatic and trade relations with Syria , Palestine and other countries; undertook building projects including military fortresses and mining quarries; and returned to pyramid-building in the tradition of the Old Kingdom.
The official record of one expedition shows a mortality rate of more than 10 percent. Just as the Egyptians optimized agricultural production with simple means, their crafts and techniques, many of which originally came from Asia, were raised to extraordinary levels of perfection.
Some of the technical and organizational skills involved were remarkable. The construction of the great pyramids of the 4th dynasty c.
This expenditure of skill contrasts with sparse evidence of an essentially neolithic way of living for the rural population of the time, while the use of flint tools persisted even in urban environments at least until the late 2nd millennium bce.
Metal was correspondingly scarce, much of it being used for prestige rather than everyday purposes. In urban and elite contexts , the Egyptian ideal was the nuclear family , but, on the land and even within the central ruling group, there is evidence for extended families.
Egyptians were monogamous, and the choice of partners in marriage, for which no formal ceremony or legal sanction is known, did not follow a set pattern.
Consanguineous marriage was not practiced during the Dynastic period, except for the occasional marriage of a brother and sister within the royal family, and that practice may have been open only to kings or heirs to the throne.
Divorce was in theory easy, but it was costly. Women had a legal status only marginally inferior to that of men. They could own and dispose of property in their own right, and they could initiate divorce and other legal proceedings.
Lower down the social scale, they probably worked on the land as well as in the house. The uneven distribution of wealth, labour, and technology was related to the only partly urban character of society, especially in the 3rd millennium bce.
In the 3rd and early 2nd millennia, the elite ideal, expressed in the decoration of private tombs, was manorial and rural. Not until much later did Egyptians develop a more pronouncedly urban character.
In cosmogonical terms, Egyptian society consisted of a descending hierarchy of the gods, the king, the blessed dead, and humanity by which was understood chiefly the Egyptians.
Of these groups, only the king was single, and hence he was individually more prominent than any of the others.
He gives offerings to the gods and mortuary offerings to the spirits [the blessed dead]. His divinity accrued to him from his office and was reaffirmed through rituals, but it was vastly inferior to that of major gods; he was god rather than man by virtue of his potential, which was immeasurably greater than that of any human being.
To humanity, he manifested the gods on earth, a conception that was elaborated in a complex web of metaphor and doctrine; less directly, he represented humanity to the gods.
The text quoted above also gives great prominence to the dead, who were the object of a cult for the living and who could intervene in human affairs; in many periods the chief visible expenditure and focus of display of nonroyal individuals, as of the king, was on provision for the tomb and the next world.
Egyptian kings are commonly called pharaohs, following the usage of the Bible. This term for palace was used increasingly from about bce as a way of referring to the living king; in earlier times it was rare.
Rules of succession to the kingship are poorly understood. The choice of queen seems to have been free; often the queen was a close relative of the king, but she also might be unrelated to him.
In the New Kingdom, for which evidence is abundant, each king had a queen with distinctive titles, as well as a number of minor wives. Sons of the chief queen seem to have been the preferred successors to the throne, but other sons could also become king.
In many cases the successor was the eldest surviving son, and such a pattern of inheritance agrees with more general Egyptian values, but often he was some other relative or was completely unrelated.
New Kingdom texts describe, after the event, how kings were appointed heirs either by their predecessors or by divine oracles, and such may have been the pattern when there was no clear successor.
Dissent and conflict are suppressed from public sources. From the Late period — bce , when sources are more diverse and patterns less rigid, numerous usurpations and interruptions to the succession are known; they probably had many forerunners.
By the 5th dynasty, fixed institutions had been added to the force of tradition and the regulation of personal contact as brakes on autocracy, but the charismatic and superhuman power of the king remained vital.
The elite of administrative officeholders received their positions and commissions from the king, whose general role as judge over humanity they put into effect.
They commemorated their own justice and concern for others, especially their inferiors, and recorded their own exploits and ideal conduct of life in inscriptions for others to see.
These attitudes and their potential dissemination through society counterbalanced inequality, but how far they were accepted cannot be known.
The core group of wealthy officeholders numbered at most a few hundred, and the administrative class of minor officials and scribes, most of whom could not afford to leave memorials or inscriptions, perhaps 5, With their dependents, these two groups formed perhaps 5 percent of the early population.
Monuments and inscriptions commemorated no more than one in a thousand people. According to royal ideology , the king appointed the elite on the basis of merit, and in ancient conditions of high mortality the elite had to be open to recruits from outside.
There was, however, also an ideal that a son should succeed his father. In periods of weak central control this principle predominated, and in the Late period the whole society became more rigid and stratified.
Writing was a major instrument in the centralization of the Egyptian state and its self-presentation. The two basic types of writing— hieroglyphs , which were used for monuments and display, and the cursive form known as hieratic —were invented at much the same time in late predynastic Egypt c.
Writing was chiefly used for administration, and until about bce no continuous texts are preserved; the only extant literary texts written before the early Middle Kingdom c.
The use and potential of writing were restricted both by the rate of literacy, which was probably well below 1 percent, and by expectations of what writing might do.
Hieroglyphic writing was publicly identified with Egypt. Perhaps because of this association with a single powerful state, its language, and its culture , Egyptian writing was seldom adapted to write other languages; in this it contrasts with the cuneiform script of the relatively uncentralized, multilingual Mesopotamia.
Nonetheless, Egyptian hieroglyphs probably served in the middle of the 2nd millennium bce as the model from which the alphabet, ultimately the most widespread of all writing systems, evolved.
The dominant visible legacy of ancient Egypt is in works of architecture and representational art. Until the Middle Kingdom, most of these were mortuary: There were also temples dedicated to the cult of the gods throughout the country, but most of these were modest structures.
From the beginning of the New Kingdom, temples of the gods became the principal monuments ; royal palaces and private houses, which are very little known, were less important.
Temples and tombs were ideally executed in stone with relief decoration on their walls and were filled with stone and wooden statuary, inscribed and decorated stelae freestanding small stone monuments , and, in their inner areas, composite works of art in precious materials.
The design of the monuments and their decoration dates in essence to the beginning of the historical period and presents an ideal, sanctified cosmos.
Little in it is related to the everyday world, and, except in palaces, works of art may have been rare outside temples and tombs. Decoration may record real historical events, rituals, or the official titles and careers of individuals, but its prime significance is the more general assertion of values, and the information presented must be evaluated for its plausibility and compared with other evidence.
Some of the events depicted in relief on royal monuments were certainly iconic rather than historically factual. The highly distinctive Egyptian method of rendering nature and artistic style was also a creation of early times and can be seen in most works of Egyptian art.
In content, these are hierarchically ordered so that the most important figures, the gods and the king, are shown together, while before the New Kingdom gods seldom occur in the same context as humanity.
The tomb owner is also typically depicted hunting in the marshes, a favourite pastime of the elite that may additionally symbolize passage into the next world.
The king and the gods are absent in nonroyal tombs, and, until the New Kingdom, overtly religious matter is restricted to rare scenes of mortuary rituals and journeys and to textual formulas.
Temple reliefs, in which king and gods occur freely, show the king defeating his enemies, hunting, and especially offering to the gods, who in turn confer benefits upon him.
Human beings are present at most as minor figures supporting the king. On both royal and nonroyal monuments, an ideal world is represented in which all are beautiful and everything goes well; only minor figures may have physical imperfections.
This artistic presentation of values originated at the same time as writing but before the latter could record continuous texts or complex statements.
Some of the earliest continuous texts of the 4th and 5th dynasties show an awareness of an ideal past that the present could only aspire to emulate.
The texts consist of stories, dialogues , lamentations, and especially instructions on how to live a good life, and they supply a rich commentary on the more one-dimensional rhetoric of public inscriptions.
Literary works also included treatises on mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and magic, as well as various religious texts and canonical lists that classified the categories of creation probably the earliest genre , dating back to the beginning of the Old Kingdom, c.
Among these texts, little is truly systematic, a notable exception being a medical treatise on wounds. The absence of systematic inquiry contrasts with Egyptian practical expertise in such fields as surveying , which was used both for orienting and planning buildings to remarkably fine tolerances and for the regular division of fields after the annual inundation of the Nile; the Egyptians also had surveyed and established the dimensions of their entire country by the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.
These precise tasks required both knowledge of astronomy and highly ingenious techniques, but they apparently were achieved with little theoretical analysis.
Whereas in the earliest periods Egypt seems to have been administered almost as the personal estate of the king, by the central Old Kingdom it had been divided into about 35 nome s, or provinces, each with its own officials.
Administration was concentrated at the capital, where most of the central elite lived and died. In the nonmonetary Egyptian economy, its essential functions were the collection, storage, and redistribution of produce; the drafting and organization of manpower for specialized labour, probably including irrigation and flood protection works, and major state projects; and the supervision of legal matters.
Administration and law were not fully distinct, and both depended ultimately on the king. The settlement of disputes was in part an administrative task, for which the chief guiding criterion was precedent, while contractual relations were regulated by the use of standard formulas.
State and temple both partook in redistribution and held massive reserves of grain; temples were economic as well as religious institutions. In periods of decentralization similar functions were exercised by local grandees.
Markets had only a minor role, and craftsmen were employees who normally traded only what they produced in their free time.
The wealthiest officials escaped this pattern to some extent by receiving their income in the form of land and maintaining large establishments that included their own specialized workers.
The essential medium of administration was writing, reinforced by personal authority over the nonliterate 99 percent of the population; texts exhorting the young to be scribes emphasize that the scribe commanded while the rest did the work.
Most officials almost all of whom were men held several offices and accumulated more as they progressed up a complex ranked hierarchy, at the top of which was the vizier , the chief administrator and judge.If you prefer to suggest your own revision of the article, you can go to edit mode requires login. Giza Shubra El Kheima. Egyptian women writers include Nawal El Saadawiwell known for her feminist activismand Alifa Rifaat who also writes about women and tradition. Inthe Egyptian General Petroleum Co EGPC said the country will cut exports of natural gas and tell major industries to slow skrill konto löschen this summer to avoid an energy crisis and stave off direktflüge deutschland las vegas unrest, Reuters has reported. The need for the perpetuation of these highly developed civilizations made writing and formal education indispensable. Corruption hampering development, says opposition report Breaking News". Its many achievements, preserved in its art and monuments, hold a fascination that continues to grow as archaeological finds expose its secrets. Retrieved 23 November Although the Romans had a more seppi tennis attitude than the Greeks towards the Egyptians, some traditions such as mummification and worship of the traditional gods continued. Pyramid-building reached its zenith with the construction of fnatoc Great Pyramid at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire.